Analysis of the influence of footwear in the first steps of children's walking.

TYPES OF FOOTWEAR ANALYZED

MINIMALIST
FOOTWEAR

CONVENTIONAL
FOOTWEAR

BIOGATEO
BIOMECANICS

What influences the evolution of the gait pattern?

INTRINSIC FACTORS

Like the anatomical changes in the musculoskeletal system and in the nervous system or the accumulation of experiences.

EXTRINSIC FACTORS

Among the factors extrinsic to child development, footwear stands out.

The results of the study show that all footwear alters the barefoot walking pattern.

The fact of wearing shoes supposes an artificial extension of the lower limb that the child has to manage during the development of walking. If, in addition, this footwear does not present a minimum functional structure, the child will have to make an extra effort that translates into a greater modification of the gait pattern and less control, which leads to an increase in stumbling and falls.

BARE FOOT
MINIMALIST FOOTWEAR
CONVENTIONAL FOOTWEAR
BIOGATING BIOMECANICS
March pattern Short steps
Slow walk

Long strides
Fast walking

Long strides
Slow walking

Long strides
Fast walking
Mid-Lateral Mobility Not limited
Low control

High control

High control
Stability Falls 0%
Falls 7.5%

Falls 0%

Falls 0%
Repeatability Step length
most repeatable

Step length
plus variable

Step length
most repeatable

Step length
most repeatable
MTF flexibility Full flexibility
Very flexible

Inflexible

Flexible
Ankle joint mobility Not limited
Augmented

Augmented

Augmented
  • Gait pattern
  • Repeatability
  • Flexibility
  • Ankle mobility
  • Mid-side control
  • Stability

Pattern of the march

With shoes, children take longer, faster steps and separate their feet less compared to going barefoot where the gait is still unstable.

Pattern of the march

A greater weight of the shoe causes a slower gait.

Repeatability

A more variable step length is associated with a more unstable gait and a higher risk of falls.

Minimalist footwear produces a gait with greater variability in step length.

Metatarsal Flexibility

The shoe must facilitate the flexion of the metatarsophalangeal joint during the take-off phase.

All footwear reduces the mobility of the metatarsophalangeal joint with respect to the bare foot.

Ankle joint mobility

In barefoot walking, the foot barely flexes with respect to the tibia at initial contact, so it contacts practically flat.

The footwear increases the range of mobility of the ankle and knee joint in its ranges of flexion and extension with respect to going barefoot.

From these results it can be concluded that the presence of footwear does not limit the movements of the knee or ankle compared to the barefoot condition.

Mid-side control

Structural support in the shoe improves medial-lateral heel control at initial foot contact with the ground.

The Biogateo footwear provides more medial-lateral control in the initial contact of the heel and the support of the foot on the ground, which reduces the risk of instability.

Stability

Footwear without minimal functional structure increases the risk of falls compared to walking barefoot.

The only presence of falls with minimalist footwear stands out.

According to the IBV, the most suitable footwear for the stage of gait acquisition must:

Protect in uncontrolled environments.
Permitir la movilidad del pie.
Maintain the natural stability of the bare foot.